Methodology

Metrics Development

In Fall 2017, the Office of Child Protection (OCP) and First 5 LA created and co-chaired a Prevention Data Workgroup, which included representatives from the Department of Children and Family Services (DCFS), Department of Mental Health (DMH), Department of Public Health (DPH), Los Angeles County Office of Education (LACOE), Chief Executive Office (CEO), the Office of the Chief Information Officer (CIO), and USC’s Children’s Data Network (CDN). The Workgroup brainstormed various ways to measure the effectiveness of the Countywide Prevention Plan. Recognizing that specific Prevention Plan strategies and initiatives have dedicated Departments, workgroups, and/or stakeholders developing their own data tracking processes and program evaluations, the Prevention Data Workgroup chose to focus on a holistic approach to measuring the impact of Countywide Prevention efforts on supporting strong children, families, and communities. 

Stakeholder Input and Vetting Process

In order to obtain critical input and guidance from County departments, data experts, and other community stakeholders, the Prevention Data Workgroup convened a three-day workshop series in September 2018 to identify and map high-level objectives and data streams to measure County Prevention efforts. The workshops were facilitated in partnership with the CIO and Tyler Technologies (formerly Socrata), and included over 75 participants across 10 County departments, as well as key community partners. The workshops resulted in a draft metrics framework that outlined potential outcome measures in the areas of health in pregnancy and early life, safe children, child well-being, strong families, strong communities, and cost savings/avoidance, as well as a program and dataset inventory related to these outcomes. 
Throughout 2019, the lead agencies from the Prevention Data Workgroup – OCP, CIO, First 5 LA and CDN – continued vetting and refining the prevention metrics framework and identified measures with input from the following departments and stakeholders: DCFS, DPH, DMH, LACOE, Department of Health Services (DHS), Department of Public Social Services, Probation Department, DHS's Office of Diversion and Re-Entry, Workforce Development, Aging, & Community Services, Women, Infant, & Children, Los Angeles County Library, Los Angeles Unified School District, Los Angeles County Parks & Recreation, Child Support Services Department, and DPH's Office of Violence Prevention. We also consulted with research and community organizations with expertise in specific program outcome areas. 

Preliminary Data Release and Next Steps

With input and guidance from our County partners and critical stakeholders, we developed the ecological framework and are working to identify both impact and actionable indicators as a starting point for common prevention-related measures. In an effort to avoid duplication or confusion, these indicators also align, when possible, with other data and metrics tracked by partner agencies and initiatives focused on outcome or impact measurement. 
The data included in this release have been vetted with the County departments and agencies that provided the data. Once we have acquired, analyzed, and vetted the full set of Countywide Prevention Metrics data, we anticipate releasing a full report in 2021. We will then regularly track metrics, likely on an annual basis, at the county level, providing a more comprehensive picture of the well-being of Los Angeles County children, families, and communities. The OCP and CIO will analyze these data and use the resulting insights to inform future program and policy change with partner agencies, as well as identify additional data for future analyses of child protection.  

Data Limitations & Gaps

This preliminary release of Countywide Prevention Metrics focuses on data that were 1) easily accessible through our County department partners, and 2) identified by partners as key indicators related to current Prevention Plan program investments. We acknowledge that some of the actionable indicators in the preliminary release, which the team identified in partnership with County departments and stakeholders, are largely descriptive indicators, rather than action-oriented, because of data limitations and gaps. Some program data were not easily accessible in time for this preliminary release, while other actionable indicators identified are not currently tracked consistently across programs and were not available in time for this preliminary release. Indicators may change in future data releases pending further stakeholder input and improvements in data availability. 

Data Definition and Sources

Scroll down or click on a link below to see the definitions and sources for each impact and actionable indicator in this Preliminary Data Release. For each metric, we acquired the latest completed calendar or fiscal year data that were available, and in some cases, data going back two to three years in order to show trends.


Cumulative Risk of Child Protective Services Involvement 

Definition: Cumulative risk of child protective service involvement is defined as the cumulative prevalence of children per thousand that are 1) referred for maltreatment allegations, 2) substantiated as a victim of maltreatment, and/or 3) entered an out-of-home foster care placement before their fifth birthday. Allegation rates for a cohort born in a given year are computed by dividing the unduplicated count of children with a child maltreatment allegation before age 5 by the child population and then multiplying by 1,000. Substantiation for maltreatment rates for a cohort born in a given year are computed by dividing the unduplicated count of children with a child maltreatment substantiation before age 5 by the child population and then multiplying by 1,000. Placed-in-care rates for a cohort born in a given year are computed by dividing the unduplicated count of children who entered an out-of-home foster care placement before age 5 by the child population and then multiplying by 1,000.
Source: Children’s Data Network (CDN). 
The CDN is a research collaborative focused on the linkage and analysis of administrative data surrounding children and families. Based at the USC Suzanne Dworak-Peck School of Social Work, the CDN partners with public agencies, philanthropic foundations, and community stakeholders to generate valuable population-level metrics from administrative data and advance research to improve policies targeting the health, safety, and well-being of children. The CDN probabilistically links vital birth records with child protective services records to determine the prevalence of children that are reported, substantiated, or placed in foster care due to maltreatment. Through connecting these administrative data, the CDN is able to generate likelihood estimates that a child is involved in the child welfare system before their fifth birthday. 

Actionable Indicators:

1. Number of Los Angeles County Department of Children and Family Services (DCFS) referrals to Prevention & Aftercare Networks
Definition: Total number of families identified and referred by DCFS to Prevention & Aftercare Network (P&A) agencies.  
Sources: DCFS and the CDN.
P&A Networks provide a wide variety of voluntary supports and services (e.g., wellness activities, parenting education, peer support, child/youth development) aimed at strengthening protective factors and family functioning. DCFS may refer families to P&A Networks from 1) evaluated-out calls from the DCFS Hotline (i.e., the call does not meet criteria for an investigation), 2) open DCFS cases in which families may need additional services,  3) DCFS cases about to be closed in which the families may benefit from aftercare services and/or 4) closed Emergency Response investigations in which the families may benefit from services. Because the services are voluntary, “services accepted” denotes that families verbally agreed to participate in services (this does not necessarily mean that families engaged in services). The CDN analyzed P&A agency referral data from DCFS and provided the metrics featured on this dashboard.

Rate of Infant Mortality

Definition: The infant mortality rate is the number of infant deaths occurring at less than 365 days of age per 1,000 live births.  
Source: The Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (DPH).
The Los Angeles County Department of Public Health is a county agency that works to protect and promote the health and well-being of Los Angeles County residents.  DPH collects and tracks all birth and death records that occur within Los Angeles County. In linking these records and determining the number of deaths that occurred among infants under the age of one, DPH is able to calculate annual infant mortality rates. 

Actionable Indicators:

1. Rate of mothers who initiate prenatal care during the first trimester
Definition: The percent of live born infants whose mothers received prenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy. 
Source: California Department of Public Health, Final Birth File and Provisional Death File, 2017
California Department of Public Health's Final Birth File records births in the state. Included in the records are initiation in prenatal care during the first trimester, which was used to estimate this rate. In reporting this rate by SPA and race/ethnicity, sum of race/ethnic totals may not add up to SPA total due to records with unspecified race/ethnicity. This rate excludes those with no prenatal care (n=77). Rates are not calculated if number is fewer than five. The mothers' residential zip codes were used to allocate live births, infant and fetal deaths to the corresponding SPA. SPAs corresponding to each zip codes (published in 2010) were designated using the zip code centroids. Published statistics based on other corresponding tables may vary when compared.
2. Number of mothers enrolled in the following Home Visitation programs funded by First 5 Los Angeles (LA) - Welcome Baby, Healthy Families America, and Parents as Teachers
Definition: Program enrollment in three First 5 LA-funded Home Visitation programs - Welcome Baby, Healthy Families America, and Parents as Teachers. 
Source: LA Best Babies Network; Los Angeles County Perinatal and Early Childhood Home Visitation Consortium.
Perinatal and early childhood home visiting is a multi-disciplinary, family-centered support and prevention strategy with services delivered by trained professionals in the home that: 1) is offered on a voluntary basis to pregnant women and/or families with children through the age of five; 2) provides a comprehensive array of holistic, strength-based services that promote parent and child physical and mental health, bonding and attachment, confidence and self-sufficiency, and optimizes infant/child development by building positive, empathetic, and supportive relationships with families and reinforcing nurturing relationships between parents and children; and 3) is designed to empower parent(s) to achieve specific outcomes which may include: healthy pregnancy, birth and infancy; optimal infant/child development; school readiness; self-sufficiency; and prevention of adverse childhood and life experiences. There are multiple Home Visitation programs in Los Angeles County funded by the County, First 5 LA, and others. 
The Los Angeles County Perinatal and Early Childhood Home Visitation Consortium is a network comprised of perinatal and early childhood home visiting programs, organizations, advocacy groups, and stakeholders that aims to support Los Angeles County’s home visitation programs. In doing so, the Los Angeles County Perinatal and Early Childhood Home Visitation Consortium collects data on home visiting outcomes.
3. Number of mothers who participate in MAMA's Neighborhood
Definition: Number of enrollments in MAMA's Neighborhood. This is a duplicated count, i.e., mothers who are pregnant multiple times in the year and enroll multiple times in the program are counted multiple times in that year's count.
Source: MAMA's Neighborhood Program, Los Angeles County Department of Health Services
MAMA’s Neighborhood is the local name for the “Strong Start for Mothers and Newborns” initiative created by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to reduce preterm births and improve outcomes for newborns and pregnant women. A key part of the MAMA’s Neighborhood program is to closely link patients to services right in their own community to help them with mental health/stress, substance use, housing, parenting education, and places for healthy food with the help of a care coordinator. MAMA’s Neighborhood extends its services to both high- and low-risk perinatal and maternity patients.

Rate of Disconnected Youth

Definition: Number of youth between ages 16-24 who are unemployed and not enrolled in school per thousand.
Source: American Community Survey (ACS) from the U.S. Census Bureau.
The ACS is an annual survey of a representative sample of U.S. residents that provides data about various population-level metrics between census years. As it pertains to disconnected youth, the American Community Survey asks respondents for their age, employment, and school enrollment status. Using Public Use Microdata provided by the U.S. Census Bureau, we are able to calculate the rate of disconnected youth in LA County and California by cross tabulating these variables and dividing by the total population of young individuals between 16-24 years of age. California and Los Angeles rates were calculated using 1-year estimates while SPA and race/ethnicity rates were calculated using 3-year estimates to increase estimate reliability.

Actionable Indicators:

1. Number of Unemployment Insurance (UI) claims filed by youth ages 16-24 in Los Angeles County  
Definition: Total quarterly count of UI claims filed by youth ages 16 to 24 in Los Angeles County.  
Source: California Employment Development Department (EDD).  
The Unemployment Insurance (UI) program pays benefits to workers who have lost their job and meet the program’s eligibility requirements, and is administered by the state Employment Development Department. 
2. Number of disconnected youth enrolled in four Workforce Development Boards'  training and employment programs
Definition: Number of disconnected youth who were served and trained in the following four WDBs’ Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) and Work Based Learning (WBL) programs: Los Angeles City, Los Angeles County, South Bay, and Southeast Los Angeles County (SELACO).   
Sources: Los Angeles County Workforce, Development, Aging, and Community Services (WDACS) with additional data from the Los Angeles City, South Bay, and SELACO WDBs.  
WDACS operates one of seven local Workforce Development Boards (WDB) in Los Angeles County. The WDBs administer the federal WIOA program, as well as other state and local employment, training, and education programs. WDACS operates the Los Angeles County WDB, and also has access to WIOA program data from several of the other WDBs in Los Angeles County. The WIOA data included in the County Prevention Metrics represent disconnected youth served by the Los Angeles County, Los Angeles City, South Bay, and SELACO WDBs. For the Work Based Learning (WBL) program, however, WDACS collects Countywide data on disconnected youth served by all seven WDBs in Los Angeles County.   
WIOA is a federal workforce program for individuals facing barriers to employment that provides training and employment services that lead to careers. WBL is a Countywide program for youth ages 14-24 facing barriers to employment that helps youth gain work experience through subsidized employment. The count includes participants ages 16-24 1) enrolled in the programs during the calendar year, participants carried over from the previous year and served in the current year, and participants served at any of the follow-up quarters for WIOA; and 2) who received at least one training through WIOA or were placed in subsidized employment through WBL.  
3. Rate of school suspensions
Definition: Number of K-12 students who are suspended from their school per thousand in a given year. Suspension is defined as the temporary removal of a student from their regular educational setting due to a violation of school rules or policies.
Source: California Department of Education, California Longitudinal Pupil Achievement Data System (CALPADS). 
CALPADS is a data system used to maintain individual-level data on student demographics, discipline, course data, and other outcomes necessary for state and federal reporting. As it pertains to suspension, local education agencies report the total enrollment and number of students suspended at each school as a part of their End of Year data submission to the CALPADS system. The rate of suspension is calculated by dividing the number of unduplicated student suspensions by the cumulative student enrollment and multiplying by 1,000. Data caveats: given publicly-available CALPADS data are reported in aggregate, there is some duplication in the reported numbers. To facilitate the SPA-level comparisons, we averaged the rate of student suspensions for each school located in that SPA. While students suspended multiple times within the same school were only counted once in these calculations, students that were suspended at least once at two or more schools located in the same SPA were counted at each of these schools, therefore leading to duplication. Nevertheless, this methodology not only allows us to compare suspension rates across SPAs, but also allows us to gauge the experience of individual schools (e.g., how many students are suspended in each school on average?). Traditional, public (charter and non-charter) schools were included in these analyses.
4. Total school expulsions
Definition: Number of K-12 students who are expelled from their school in a given year. Expulsion is defined as the permanent removal of a student from a school due to a violation of school rules or policy.
Source: California Department of Education California Longitudinal Pupil Achievement Data System (CALPADS). 
CALPADS is a data system used to maintain individual-level data on student demographics, discipline, course data, and other outcomes necessary for state and federal reporting. As it pertains to expulsions, local education agencies report the number of students expelled at each school as a part of their annual End of Year data submission to the CALPADS system. Given expulsion numbers are fairly low, we report the sum of total expulsions. Data caveats: given publicly-available CALPADS data are reported in aggregate, there is some duplication in the reported numbers. To facilitate the SPA-level comparisons, we totaled the number of students that were expelled in each school located in that SPA. Students that were expelled at two or more schools located in the same SPA were counted at each of these schools, thus leading to some duplication. Nevertheless, this methodology not only allows us to see the difference across SPAs, but also allows us to gauge the experience of individual schools (e.g., how many students are expelled in each school on average?). Traditional, public (charter and non-charter) schools were included in these analyses. 

Measures of Maternal Mental Health

Definition: The rates of mothers self-reporting, during pregnancy (prenatal) and since the most recent birth (postpartum), they experienced both of the following for two weeks or longer: felt sad, empty or depressed for most of the day; lost interest in most things she usually enjoyed. 
Source: The Maternal and Infant Health Assessment (MIHA); California Department of Public Health and the University of California, San Francisco.  
 
The MIHA is an annual, statewide-representative survey of women with a recent live birth in California. MIHA collects self-reported information about maternal and infant experiences and about maternal attitudes and behaviors before, during and shortly after pregnancy.  

Actionable Indicators:

1. Rate of mothers whose medical provider discussed depression during the postpartum checkup
Definition: Rate of mothers who self-reported that during the postpartum checkup, their doctor or nurse talked to them about depression.  
Source: The Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) Project sponsored by the LA County Department of Public Health (DPH). 
 
The LAMB Project is a population-based surveillance tool designed to monitor events before, during, and after pregnancy. The LAMB Project surveys a representative sample of Los Angeles County mothers to gather information related to the health and early childhood experiences of young children and their families.  
2. Rate of MAMA's Neighborhood clients whose screening results indicate moderate or high risk of depression
Definition: Rate of MAMA's Neighborhood clients whose screening results indicate moderate or high risk of depression. All MAMA's clients undergo an intake process that includes depression screening. Clients whose results indicate moderate or high risk of depression as well as any clients who requested referral are referred to mental health services at MAMA's Neighborhood partner organizations.
Source: MAMA's Neighborhood Program, Los Angeles County Department of Health Services
MAMA’s Neighborhood is the local name for the “Strong Start for Mothers and Newborns” initiative created by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to reduce preterm births and improve outcomes for newborns and pregnant women. A key part of the MAMA’s Neighborhood program is to closely link patients to services right in their own community to help them with mental health/stress, substance use, housing, parenting education, and places for healthy food with the help of a care coordinator. MAMA’s Neighborhood extends its services to both high- and low-risk perinatal and maternity patients.
3. Rate of mothers enrolled in First 5 LA-funded Home Visitation programs receiving depression screening within 3 months of delivery 
Definition: Percentage of mothers receiving depression screenings within 3 months of delivery in 3 First 5-LA funded Home Visiting programs (Welcome Baby, Healthy Families America, Parents as Teachers). The rates for 2018-19 and 2017-18 are based on clients enrolled post-partum, while the 2016-17 rates and all of the data disaggregated by Best Start Communities and race/ethnicity are based on clients enrolled post-partum who had an intake 2-4 weeks after birth.  

Source: LA Best Babies Network; Los Angeles County Perinatal and Early Childhood Home Visitation Consortium. 
 
The Los Angeles County Perinatal and Early Childhood Home Visitation Consortium is a network comprised of perinatal and early childhood home visiting programs, organizations, advocacy groups, and stakeholders that aims to support Los Angeles County’s home visitation programs. In doing so, the Los Angeles County Perinatal and Early Childhood Home Visitation Consortium collects data on home visiting outcomes. There are multiple Home Visitation programs in Los Angeles County funded by the County, First 5 LA, and others. This data reflects depression screenings in three First 5 LA-funded programs - Welcome Baby, Healthy Families America, and Parents as Teachers. 


Measures of Families Experiencing Financial Insecurity

Definition: Percent of families living at or below 138% of the Official Poverty Measure (OPM) threshold as determined by the American Community Survey (ACS).
Source: American Community Survey from the U.S. Census Bureau
Considered the minimum income needed to meet a family’s basic needs, families are considered to fall under the official poverty threshold if their gross income is less than three times the cost of the minimum food diet in 1963 (adjusted for family size and inflation). Given families and individuals living at or below 138% of the OPM threshold qualify for Medi-Cal, this threshold offers a more pragmatic estimate of families experiencing financial insecurity than official poverty estimates.
The ACS converts individual family incomes into percentages of the official poverty line. Using Public Use Microdata, we cross-tabulated the percent of households with children living at or below 138% of the OPM threshold with geographic and race/ethnicity variables to obtain estimates of the percentage of families in California and Los Angeles County that are living under the 138% of the OPM threshold. In cross-tabulating respondent-level responses with geographical regions, we are able to estimate the rate of families living at or below 138% of the OPM threshold in a given area. California and Los Angeles rates were calculated using 1-year estimates while SPA and race/ethnicity rates were calculated using 3-year estimates to increase estimate reliability.

Actionable Indicators:

1. Number of families receiving CalWORKs, CalFresh, and Medi-Cal
Definition: The CalWORKs total caseload for California is the sum of three forecasts from the California Department of Social Services (CDSS): Single-Parent and Child-Only Families, Two-Parent Families, and Non-Maintenance of Effort Funded Families. The Los Angeles County CalWORKs caseload refers to the number of Department of Public Social Services (DPSS) family household cases in Los Angeles County that are receiving CalWORKs cash grants. The total CalFresh caseload for California from CDSS includes both public assistance and non-assistance households. The Los Angeles County CalFresh caseload, for purposes of the Countywide Prevention Metrics, refers to the number of DPSS individuals and families in Los Angeles County that are receiving CalFresh benefits. The Medi-Cal caseload for California refers to the number of parents/caretakers, relatives, and children receiving Medi-Cal, and is based on July 2017 monthly data from the California Department of Health Care Services (DHCS) through the California Health and Human Services Agency (CHHS). The Los Angeles County Medi-Cal caseload, for purposes of the Countywide Prevention Metrics, refers to the number of DPSS family household cases in Los Angeles County that are receiving CalFresh benefits. 
The following apply to the CalWORKs, CalFresh, and Medi-Cal caseload counts for Los Angeles County from DPSS:
  1. Counts are limited to family households with children. There are no single adult cases included in the tallies and cases/case numbers with multiple adults but no children were excluded;
  2. All cases with a person < 18 residing in the household are counted once when they appear in the program caseload at least one-time within the 12-month observation window;
  3. Households are counted one time per year, per program and one time in the bottom-line total, i.e. cases are de-duplicated in combined total.
Sources: California Department of Social Services (CDSS), California Department of Health Care Services (DHCS) through the California Health and Human Services Agency (CHHS), and Los Angeles County Department of Public Social Services (DPSS).
California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKs) is a public assistance program that provides cash aid and employment services to eligible families that have child(ren) in the home. CalWORKs also provides a childcare program (further described in the subsidized childcare actionable indicator), which helps a family access immediate, short-term child care as the parent works or performs their welfare-to-work activity. CalFresh is a federal nutrition assistance program that can help individuals in low-income households purchase food by increasing their food-buying power. Medi-Cal is California’s Medicaid healthcare program. It pays for a variety of medical services for children and adults with limited income and resources. 
CDSS is one of 16 state departments and offices in the CHHS Agency, and is responsible for the oversight and administration of programs that provide aid, services and protection to needy children and adults. CDSS publishes program caseload data and projections for CalWORKs and CalFresh in its Local Assistance Estimates for the Governor's Budget. The CHHS Agency oversees departments and offices – including CDSS and DHCS – that provide a range of services that includes health care, mental health, public health, cash assistance, alcohol and drug treatment, and social services. CHHS’s Open Data Portal Health and Human Services Program Dashboard collects information from these departments and offices to increase public access to non-confidential health and human services data. As it relates to Medi-Cal, CHHS’s Open Data Portal collects the most recent data through DHCS, which administers Medi-Cal, on the total count of Los Angeles County residents that are covered by Medi-Cal. The Medi-Cal state data included in this dashboard reflects 2017 family caseload data, based on a monthly caseload count from July 2017, using the aid code group of "parents/relative caregivers & children" receiving Medi-Cal. CHHS's Open Data Portal currently only has data for this specific aid code group for 2017.
DPSS is a county social service agency that works to provide Los Angeles County residents with benefit services related to health, cash-assistance, employment, and community services. DPSS collects and tracks program data that allows them to calculate the number of CalWORKs, CalFresh, and Medi-Cal individuals and families receiving benefit assistance within Los Angeles County.
2.  Number of children receiving subsidized childcare
Definition: Number of children enrolled in subsidized childcare through the CalWORKs Stage 1, Stage 2, Stage 3, and Alternative Payment Child Care Subsidy Program in Los Angeles County.
SPA totals are cross-sectional estimates of the number of children served per SPA in November 2019. The total number of children served differs slightly from the November 2019 reported in the monthly totals for two reasons:
  1. Agencies pulled these data using children’s home address. Because some children served by the Los Angeles County CalWORKs Child Care Subsidy Program live outside of Los Angeles County, they are not accounted for in these totals.
  2. Monthly totals were uniformly reported at the end of November 2019 whereas totals used to calculate SPA estimates were pulled at different time points throughout November and December 2019. As such, some agencies reported numbers that do not fully capture total enrollment for November 2019.
Source: The Child Care Alliance of Los Angeles (CCALA). 
CalWORKs provides a childcare program which helps a family access immediate, short-term childcare as the parent works or performs their welfare-to-work activity. The CalWORKs childcare program is administered in three different stages. 
CCALA is a partnership of ten Resource and Referral and Alternative Payment member agencies that serve families and childcare providers across Los Angeles County. Together these member agencies administer CalWORKs Stages 1, 2, and 3 Child Care Subsidy Programs, Alternative Payment Program, and Emergency Child Care Bridge Program. Monthly totals represent the number of children served through the CalWORKs Stage 1, Stage 2, Stage 3, and Alternative Payment Child Care Subsidy Program in Los Angeles County per month, with the exception of data from one program provider, Children's Home Society, which was not available. Data caveats: monthly totals are not additive. For example, because families can use Stage 1 childcare vouchers up to 24 months, several children’s enrollment “rolls over” month to month. This means, for example, a substantial proportion of the children served in June are also served in July. Therefore, the average number of children served represents the mean number of children served on a monthly basis. These data do not allow us to ascertain the total number of children served by the CalWORKs Child Care Subsidy Program per year.
3.  Rate of infants in Los Angeles County enrolled in the Women, Infants & Children (WIC) program 
Definition: Rate was estimated using the count of infants – defined as birth to age one – enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) in Los Angeles County divided by the number of live births in Los Angeles County in a calendar year, as provided by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health.
Data caveats to note include 1) the WIC calendar year enrollment count is a point-in-time snapshot of the number of clients, and 2) the live birth count does not account for infant deaths (less than 365 days of age). 
Sources: WIC data are from the PHFE WIC Data Mining Partnership with all seven Local Agency WIC Programs in Los Angeles County and funded by First 5 LA. The live birth data are from the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health’s Maternal, Child & Adolescent Health Programs.  
WIC is a food and nutrition education program for pregnant, breastfeeding, and postpartum women, infants and children under age five who are low-income (up to 185% of the Federal Poverty Level) and at nutritional risk. Funded by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), WIC provides nutrition education, breastfeeding promotion and support, medical and social service referrals, and supplemental foods to eligible families. 

Measures of Perceived Community Safety

Definition: Number of adults that report their neighborhood is safe from crime per thousand on the Los Angeles County Health Survey.
Source: The Los Angeles County Health Survey implemented by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (DPH). 
The Los Angeles County Health Survey is a population-based telephone survey that collects information related to a range of health-related needs and behaviors among Los Angeles County residents. As it pertains to community safety, respondents are asked, “how safe from crime do you consider your neighborhood to be?” and are asked to respond on a four-point scale ranging from “very safe” (1) to very unsafe (4). Respondents that responded, “very safe” or “somewhat safe” were coded as those that considered their neighborhood safe from crime, while those that responded, “somewhat unsafe” and “very unsafe” were coded as those that did not consider their neighborhood safe from crime. The data reported on this dashboard were collected in 2018.  

Actionable Indicators:

1. Rate of serious crimes  
Definition: Number of Part I violent crimes (homicide, rape, aggravated assault and robbery) and Part I property crimes (burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson). 
Source: Office of Violence Prevention at the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health. 
Data was aggregated and prepared by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health’s Office of Violence Prevention using data from the Los Angeles Sheriff’s Department, Los Angeles Police Department, California Attorney General, and population data from Los Angeles County Internal Services Department. There is no single standardized way to measure crime rates, violence, and/or safety in communities, as different law enforcement agencies (LEA) often use different definitions. For this report, we decided to present Part I crimes only, as LEAs only have to report Part I Crimes to the Federal Bureau of Investigation as part of the Uniform Crime Reporting System.  
2. Rate of students reporting feeling safe at school 
Definition: Percentage of children attending LAUSD middle and high schools that perceive their school as being safe.
Source: Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) School Experience Survey (SES). 
The LAUSD SES is an annual survey given to all LAUSD students, parents, teachers, and staff to gather information about academics, school climate, and social and emotional learning. The data reported here represent LAUSD students' ratings of school safety. As it pertains to safety, students were asked to report their perceptions of overall school safety on a five-point scale ranging from "Strongly disagree" to "Strongly agree." Students who rated their overall safety as "Agree" or "Strongly Agree" were coded as students who considered their school to be safe. The data reported above only includes ratings from middle and high school students. As LAUSD does not serve all 8 SPAs, not all SPAs are represented in the data. For the reported percentages, the school-level survey data has been weighted by each school’s student enrollment numbers and then aggregated by year and SPA to calculate the average rate.  
3. Number of parks participating in the Parks After Dark (PAD) program 
Definition: Number of Los Angeles County Parks & Recreation Department-operated parks that administer the PAD program. 
Source: Los Angeles County Department of Parks & Recreation (P&R). 
PAD is an innovative P&R program for building resilient communities that re-envisions parks as community hubs. PAD began in 2010 at three parks and has since expanded to 33 by 2019, evolving into a key County prevention and intervention strategy to promote health, safety, equity, and family and community well-being through cross-sector collaborations. The parks selected for PAD participation are located in communities that, compared to Los Angeles County as a whole, experience higher rates of violence, economic hardship, and obesity and have fewer resources for physical activity and social gathering. A PAD program evaluation showed that the program decreases community violence and increases residents’ perceived safety.